Modular Container Housing: Use of Shipping Containers for Construction Purposes

Modular Container Housing: Use of Shipping Containers for Construction Purposes





1. Introduction

1.1 What are Containers?
1.2 History
1.2.1 Before Containerization
1.2.2 The Need
1.2.3 Standardization
1.2.4 After Containerization
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.4 Summary of Research Methodology
1.5 Structure of Dissertation

2 Characteristics and Sustainable Approach of Shipping Containers

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristics of Shipping Containers
2.2.1 Types of Shipping Containers
2.2.2 Components of Containers (Containerhandel, 2012)
2.3 Sustainable Approach of Shipping Containers to Develop Construction Facilities
2.3.1 Upcycled
2.3.2 Modular Construction
2.3.3 Customizable and Compactable
2.3.4 Durable and Structurally Strong
2.3.5 Mobility
2.3.6 Affordability
2.4 Why Containers?
2.5 Embodied Energies and Co2 Emission of Concrete and Steel Structures
2.5.1 Embodied Energies
2.5.2 CO2 Emission
2.6 Conclusion

3 Consideration of barriers and Critical Factors Affecting Shipping container Conversion Process

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Technical Difficulties and Barriers Incurred While Shipping Container Conversion
3.2.1 Guarantee of Reused Shipping Containers
3.2.2 Suitability of Shipping Containers for Conversions
3.2.3 Building Codes and Permissions
3.2.4 Flexibility
3.2.5 Insulations
3.2.6 Waterproofing
3.3 Critical Factors Affecting the Use of Shipping Containers to Develop Construction Facilities
3.3.1 Container Factors Type and Size New or Reused
3.3.2 Design Factors Purpose Requirements Budget
3.3.3 Site Factors Location Type of Land Surroundings
3.3.4 Technical Factors Rules and Regulations Mechanical Resistance and Stability Professional Services Transportation
3.3.5 Construction Factors Pre Fitting Off-site Attaching Homes to its Foundation On-site construction
3.4 Examples
3.4.1 Boxpark Shoreditch-London
3.4.2 Container City-London
3.4.3 Common Ground Shopping Mall-Seoul
3.4.4 Mill Junction-Johannesburg, South Africa
3.4.5 KEETWONEN-Amsterdam
3.4.6 BOXPARK-Dubai
3.4.7 CitizenM Centraal Hotel-Amsterdam
3.5 Conclusion

4 Research Methodology

4.1 Introduction
4.2 What is Research Methodology?
4.3 Classification of research methodology
4.3.1 Qualitative Research
4.3.2 Quantitative Research
4.4 Data Collection Methods
4.4.1 Primary Data collection Methods
4.4.2 Secondary Data Collection Methods
4.5 Research Strategy

5 Result and Analysis

5.1 Objective 1: To identify and assist the characteristics of shipping containers
5.2 Objective 2: The sustainable approach of shipping containers to develop construction facilities
5.3 Objective 3: To identify the technical difficulties and barriers incurred while converting shipping containers for the use of construction
5.4 Objective 4: To identify critical factors affecting the use of shipping containers to develop construction facilities
5.5 Summary of the Responses

6 Conclusion

6.1 Conclusion for each Objectives
6.2 Limitations of Study
6.3 Recommendations
6.3.1 Recommendations for Future Study
6.3.2 Recommendations for Industrial Implementations

7 References


Modular Container Housing: Use of Shipping Containers for Construction Purposes

Shipping Container Buildings are modern day Lego. Construction process is same like
Legos, block by block, one section at a time, stacking on top of one another or side by
side, leaving gaps, complete the structure. Since 1956, shipping containers have been used
mainly for cargo transport, storage and for past three decades in construction industry.
The aim of this research is to study characteristics, benefits, barriers, critical factors and
applications of shipping containers for the construction purposes. To fulfil the objectives
of this research methods like in-depth literature review and questionnaire surveys are used.
To identify the advantages & disadvantages of the shipping containers, technical
difficulties and factors affecting the conversion process of the shipping containers for
construction purposes, in-depth literature review is carried out with the help of some
databases, company websites and some online blogs. Questions for questionnaire survey
are prepared according the type, challenges and usage of shipping containers which then
forwarded to the professionals. By carefully analyzing the results of the questionnaire
survey it has been cleared that respondents have shown much more interest and are in favor
of building more and more shipping container construction facilities. This study concludes
that shipping container buildings are unique combination of strength, customization,
affordability and sustainability.

Educational Adaptation of Cargo Container Design Features

2015 ASEE Zone III Conference

Christopher M. Moore, Semih G. Yildirim, Stuart W. Baur

1. Design criteria
1.1 Foundation
1.2 Structural system
1.3 Infill system
2. Educational adaptation
2.1 Details of design
2.2 Content of the assignment
2.3 Results of the activity
2.4 Survey
3. Conclusion
Biographical information


Cargo container homes have become increasingly popular around the world in the last 30 years. Because cargo containers are modular in design, they can be used to create efficient, cheap homes. Repurposing cargo containers into homes is a sustainable construction practice due to the majority of the structure coming from recycled materials. Many design parameters of cargo container homes parallel those of standard home construction methodologies (cold formed steel framing/light wood framing) and from a structural standpoint, cargo containers are an effective building material. This paper aims to discuss the design parameters of cargo container home construction and an educational application of the concept. Problem-based learning (PBL) methodology was applied in order to create a discussion group. Building types were handed-out, scaled model and poster presentation were prepared by teams according to defined design parameters. Educational activity is evaluated by survey and critical points are determined to improve.

Stacking Shipping Containers on Land for an Off-Axis Detector - Load-Bearing Capacity and Safety

Stacking Shipping Containers on Land for an Off-Axis Detector
J. Cooper, J. Kilmer, B. Wands
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510

May 29, 2003

Corner Post Geometry and Compressive Load-Bearing Capacity
Corner Fittings
Safety Factor for Stacking Containers on Land


Fig. 1 shows a typical International Standards Organization (ISO) Series 1 shipping container.

Figure 1. ISO Series 1 Shipping Container

These containers are designed to make vertical contact with each other through discrete corner fittings; when stacked, all vertical force is transferred through these fittings, in turn loading the corner posts, and not the walls, of the container. The number of containers which can be stacked on each other is determined by the strength of the corner posts.

ISO Standard 1496(1) states that the corner posts of ISO Series 1 containers should be tested to a load of 86,400 kg (190,480 lbs). This is the load applied to the posts of the bottom container in an 8-on-1 stack of 24,000 kg (gross weight) containers, multiplied by a factor of 1.8. This extra factor is used to take into account “conditions aboard ship and the relative eccentricities between superimposed containers.”(1) The “conditions aboard ship” were derived from a 1964 study of maximum acceleration values under the worst sea and wind conditions.(2)

Calculating the safe stacking height for loaded containers on land requires some understanding of the corner posts, their material properties, possible failure modes, and what constitutes an adequate factor of safety.

Overview of Modular Design Strategy of the Shipping Container Architecture in Cold Regions

2017 IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 63

Zexin Sun, Hongyuan Mei and Ruixian Ni

School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Room 325,No .66Xidazhi St,

1. Introduction
2. The advantages of shipping container architecture in cold regions
2.1. Prefabrication, shorten the construction duration
2.2. Recycling, save the building material
2.3. Standardization, reduce building energy consumption
2.4. Removable, adapt to diverse sites
3. Analysis of the modular design
3.1. Modular design
3.2. Modular design in architecture
4. Modular design strategy of shipping container architecture in cold regions
4.1. Classification of the modular design strategy
4.2. Combinations of the modular design strategy
5. Conclusion


In recent years, the shipping container architecture, as an emerging green building
mode, has grown in popularity. In this article, we analyse the advantages of applying shipping
container architecture in cold regions, such as shortening the construction cycle, saving
construction materials, reducing energy consumption and adapting to diverse sites. Then we
analyze the modular design strategy and the modular design strategy in architecture. In the end
we introduce the modular design strategy of shipping container architecture in cold regions
with the technology roadmap, classification and combination.

Using Container Structures in Architecture and Urban Design

2017 IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 245

Karol Grebowski1, Daniel Kaldunek2

1 Faculty of Architecture and Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Technical University of Gdansk, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
2 Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Gdansk, ul. Narutowicza 11/12,
80-233 Gdansk, Poland

1. Introduction
2. History of large panel technology and its impact on current housing
3. Houses out of shipping containers
4. Shipping container modifications
5. New era of prefabricated buildings
6. Conclusions


The paper presents the use of shipping containers in architecture and urban design.
Even today, houses and apartments are still too expensive. Since 1923 architects have been
improving the living conditions of citizens by building very simple, repeatable forms. With
prefabrication technology it became possible to build quicker, causing house prices to decrease.
Apartments in block of flats became affordable to more and more people. Modernism had great
impact on the quality of living spaces, despite the detrimental effect of large panel technology
on social life. It gave people their own bathrooms, and gifted them with simple solutions we now
consider indispensable. The ambition to build cheaply but effectively is still here. The future of
housing lies in prefabricated apartment modules. A well optimized creation process is the key,
but taking into consideration the mistakes made by past generations should be the second most
important factor. Studies show that large panel buildings were too monumental and solid for a
housing structure, and offered no public spaces between them. Lack of urban design transformed
a great idea into blocks that are considered to be ugly and unfriendly. Diversity is something that
large panel structures were missing. While most block of flats were being constructed out of the
same module (Model 770), differentiated architecture was difficult to achieve. Nowadays,
increasing numbers of shipping containers are being used for housing purposes. These
constructions show that it is possible to create astonishing housing with modules. Shipping
containers were not designed to be a building material, but in contrast to large panel modules,
there are many more possibilities of their transformation. In this paper the authors propose a set
of rules that, if followed, would result in cheaper apartments, while keeping in consideration
both tremendous architecture and friendly urban design. What is more, the proposed solution is
designed to adapt to personalized requirements. In this paper the authors include information
about design guidelines for structures made from shipping containers.